How to Become an RIA

A registered investment advisor (“RIA”) is a person or firm that, for compensation, provides advice, makes recommendations, issues reports or furnishes analyses on securities, either directly or through publications.  Typically, an RIA manages the assets of high net worth individuals and institutional investors.  RIAs have the highest standard of care as they are deemed fiduciaries.  As a fiduciary, RIAs owe their clients a duty of Read More…

What is on the Series 7 exam?

The financial services industry is heavily regulated.  In order to enter into the industry and sell securities, you must first prove that you have the competence.  In order to showcase your competency, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) requires that you take the Series 7 exam, also known as the General Securities Registered Representative Qualification Exam.  In order to take the exam, you must be sponsored by a FINRA member firm. Read More…

Large Trader – Rule 13h-1 (Part 1)

Rule 13h-1 helps the SEC identify and obtain trading information on market participants that conduct a substantial amount of trading activity in the U.S. securities market. The rule imposes filing requirements on persons that meet the definition of “large trader.” A larger trader is any person that directly or indirectly, including through other persons controlled by such person, exercises investment discretion over transactions in NMS securities that equal or exceed:

  • 2 million shares or $20 million during any calendar day; or
  • 20 million shares or $200 million during any calendar month.

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Annual Reviews – SEC Rule 206(4)-7

SEC Rule 206(4)-7 requires investment advisers to review, no less frequently than annually, the adequacy of its written compliance policies and procedures and the effectiveness of their implementation. The SEC expects annual reviews to take into consideration any compliance matters that arose during the previous year, any changes in the business activities of the adviser or its affiliates, and any changes in the Investment Advisers Act or related rules that may impact the adviser’s policies and procedures. In addition, the SEC expects that an investment adviser will review its compliance policies and procedures on an interim basis in response to significant compliance issues, changes in business activities, and new regulation.  Read More…

Order Audit Trail System (OATS)

Established by FINRA, the Order Audit Trail System (OATS),  is an integrated audit trail of order, quote and trade information for all NMS (National Market System) stocks and OTC equity securities. As part of FINRA’s surveillance activities, Rules 7400 through 7470 (OATS Rules) and Rule 4554, OATS requires electronic auditing and reporting capabilities on all stock and equity orders, quotes, trades and cancellations. According to Rule 7430 (updated from NASD Rule 6953), all computer clocks and timestamping devices must be synchronized to be regarding a time source as designated by FINRA. This data can be collected during the day and transmitted to OATS in one or more files at a convenient time; however, reports for events that occur during particular OATS Business Days must be reported by 5am EST the following calendar day.  Read More…

Wrap Fee Suitability

A wrap fee program is an arrangement between financial institutions (typically broker-dealers and investment advisers) that enables customers to pay an all-inclusive fee (usually as a percentage of assets) for investment advisory services bundled with various other services, such as execution, clearing, and custodial services. Wrap fee programs create a number of suitability issues for the financial institutions that sponsor the wrap fee program or participate in the program.  Read More…